Para Bunda dimanapun ANDA berada, belakangan ini muncul banyak sekali obat-obatan dan metode meraih kehamilan yang ditawarkan sampai ANDA bingung harus memakai yang mana. Seiring dengan banyak sekali yang muncul, anda sampai tidak bisa membedakan mana yang benar-benar memberi hasil dan mana yang tidak.

Banyak sekali penjual-penjual obat herbal menawarkan janji akan memberi anda kehamilan dengan INSTAN atau muncul metode-metode yang ANDA harus lakukan. ANDA dipaksa terus menggunakan obat-obatan dan berbagai metode dengan mengeluarkan uang yang tidak sedikit yang pada akhirnya tidak menghasilkan apa-apa.

Beruntunglah ANDA hari ini telah berhasil menemukan website ini, karena melalui halaman website ini saya akan tunjukkan bukti nyata tentang sebuah cara yang telah membuat banyak orang, baik yang belum pernah hamil dan yang sudah berumur 35 tahun ke atas dapat meraih kehamilan dengan cara paling cerdas dan paling mudah. Siapapun ANDA, bisa meraih kehamilan tanpa mengkonsumsi obat-obatan yang berbahaya dan melakukan metode-metode yang belum tentu ilmiah.

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Kota tumbuh bersamaan dengan tumbuhnya perkembangan ekonomi dan teknologi. Kota  berkembang seiring dengan tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi, sosial dan pembangunan fisik kota yang mengalami dinamika dari waktu ke waktu sesuai dengan kondisi perkembangan. Maraknya reklame luar ruang di Kota Medan menunjukkan tingginya minat pelaku bisnis reklame yang terjun dalam bentuk industri kreatif yang disebabkan tingginya permintaan pasar yang ingin mempromosikan produk melalui media promosi reklame. Hal ini disebabkan jenis media ini sangat efektif dan efisien dalam menyampaikan pesan produk yang akan disampaikan kepada konsumen potensial yang tidak memiliki banyak kesempatan memanfaatkan media promosi lainnya. Tujuan dilakukannya kajian ini adalah menetapkan kawasan penyebaran peletakan reklame. Identifikasi ini menitikberatkan pada koridor yang menuju inti kota dengan memperhatikan beberapa kriteria seperti  kawasan jalan protokol, kawasan bersejarah, kawasan komersial dan bisnis, kawasan perumahan dan kawasan pemerintahan.
Kota dapat juga dipandang sebagai bentukan fisik buatan manusia yang terakumulasi dari waktu ke waktu. kota tidak terbentuk dalam waktu yang sesaat melainkan tumbuh dan berkembang dalam satuan waktu yang tidak terbatas. Pola ruang kota dan komponen-komponen fisik pembentukannya dapat mencerminkan adanya pertumbuhan dan perkembangan t empor a l lingkungannya . Kota  berkembang seiring dengan tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi, sosial dan pembangunan fisik kota yang mengalami dinamika dari waktu ke waktu sesuai dengan kondisi perkembangan. Seiring dengan adanya pasar bebas, semakin meningkatkan persaingan di dunia perekonomian, salah satunya di bidang perdagangan. Bentuk promosi produk yang saat ini banyak berkembang di Kota  adalah penggunaan papan reklame. Fasilitas ini dirasakan efektif dan lebih menguntungkan para pengusaha untuk menawarkan produk dengan alasan produk dapat diperkenalkan kepada masyarakat dengan cepat dan jelas karena papan
reklame dapat dibaca semua orang, penyajian reklame yang banyak menarik perhatian pembaca, dan pesan yang ingin disampaikan  dapat dipahami oleh pembaca, serta biaya lebih murah dibandingkan dengan menggunakan media promosi lain. Dari segi perancangan kota, papan reklame perlu diatur agar terjalin kecocokan lingkungan, pengurangan dampak visual negatif, mengurangi kebingungan dan kompetisi antara papan informasi publik dan papan reklame. Papan reklame yang dirancang dengan baik akan menambah kualitas tampilan dan kesesuaian dengan lokasi.Pemasangan reklame cenderung timbulkan kesan kota yang semrawut hal ini dijumpai pada jalan-jalan utama di Kota Medan marak papan reklame yang tidak beraturan sehingga menimbulkan rasatidak nyaman dan mengganggu pengguna jalan. Pemasangan reklame dapat merusak keindahan kota sebagai akibat dari bebasnya pemasangan reklame
Tujuan
Tujuan dilakukannya kajian ini adalah mengidentifikasi kawasan penyebaran peletakan reklame di inti kota  
Dalam kajian penataan reklame luar ruang pada koridor inti kota di Kota  ini lebih menitikberatkan kepada koridor-koridor jalanjalan utama yang ada di Kota   yang salah satunya adalah koridor yang menuju inti kota dengan memperhatikan beberapa kriteria seperti kawasan jalan protokol, kawasan bersejarah, kawasan komersial dan bisnis, kawasan perumahan dan kawasan pemerintahan.
Tinjauan Umum
Elemen Perancangan Kota
Setiap perancangan kota harus perhatikan elemen-elemen perancangan yang ada sehingga kota tersebut mempunyai karakteristik yang jelas. Terdapat delapan elemen yang membentuk sebuah kota
Papan reklame yang ideal adalah:
1. Mampu merefleksikan karakter visual kawasan.
2. Mampu menjamin kemampuan pandangan/memiliki sudut pandang untuk dapat dilihat secara jelas.
3. Bentuk yang ada sesuai dengan arsitektur bangunan di mana signage ditempatkan.
4. Merupakan elemen yang menyatu dengan bangunan bukan elemen tambahan.
5. Mampu menyatukan komunikasi langsung atau tidak langsung.

·         Reklame Papan/Billboard  
yaitu reklame yang terbuat dari papan, kayu termasuk seng atau bahan lain yang sejenis, dipasang atau digantung atau dibuat pada bangunan, tembok, dinding, pagar, pohon, tiang dan sebagainya baik bersinar maupun yang disinari.
·         Reklame Megatron/Videotron/Large Electronic Display (LED)
 yaitu reklame yang menggunakan layar monitor besar berupa program reklame atau iklan bersinar dengan gambar dan atau tulisan berwarna yang dapat berubahubah, terprogram dan difungsikan dengan tenaga listrik.
·         Reklame Kain
yaitu reklame yang diselenggarakan dengan menggunakan bahan kain, termasuk kertas, plastik, karet atau bahan lain yang sejenis dengan itu. Reklame Melekat (Stiker/Poster)yaitu reklame yang berbentuk lembaranblepas, diselenggarakan dengan carabdisebarkan, dipasang, digantung pada suatu benda dengan ketentuan luasnya tidak lebih dari 200 cm2 per lembar.
·         Reklame Selebaran
yaitu reklame yang berbentuk lembaran lepas, diselenggarakan dengan cara disebarkan, diberikan atau dapat diminta dengan ketentuan tidak untuk ditempel,diletakkan, dipasang atau digantungkan pada suatu benda lain.
Karakteristik Reklame
Secara umum karakteristik media iklan Reklame tersebut dapat dirangkum sebagai berikut
a. Ukuran dan dominasi; ukuran relative besar; mendominasi pemandangan dan mudah menarik perhatian.
b. Warna; dihiasi dengan aneka warna, gambar–gambar dan pemandangan yang realitis sehingga memudahkan pemirsa untuk mengingat produk yang diwakilin.
c. Pesan singkat; karena dimaksudkan untuk menarik perhatian orang–orang yang sedang bergerak dan dilihat dari kejauhan. Kalimat atau pesan–pesan tertulis biasanya terbatas pada slogan singkat atau sekedar satu nama yang sengaja dicetak dengan huruf besar–besar dan menyolok.
d. Zoning; kampanye iklan secara umum dapat diorganisir pada suatu kawasan atau kota tertentu. Pemasangan reklame dalam jumlah minimum bisa diatur di setiap kota untuk menjamin kesempatan penyimakan maksimum dari pemirsa.Penempatan reklame secara strategis dapat ciptakan suatu kampanye iklan yang sangat ekonomis.
e. Efek menyolok; karakteristik reklame yang paling penting adalah kemampuan dalam menciptakan kesan atau ingatan pemirsa melalui penebalan, warna, ukuran dan pengulangan.

Tipologi Papan Reklame
Secara umum, klasifikasi reklame dapat berdasarkan isi pesan, bahan, sifat informasi dan teknis pemasangannya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, klasifikasi media reklame ini akan dipaparkan sebagai berikut di bawah ini.
1. Berdasarkan isi pesannya, media reklame
dibedakan atas (Mandelker, 1982: 303):
a. Media komersial, menyangkut media reklame yang memberikan informasi suatu barang atau jasa untuk kepentingan dagang (private sign).
b. Media reklame non-komersial merupakan media reklame yang mengandung informasi pelayanan kepada masyarakat (public sign).
2. Berdasarkan bahan dan periode waktu yang digunakan, media reklame dibedakan atas (Damain dan Gray, 1989: 2):
a. Media reklame permanen. Umumnya media ini ditempatkan atau dibuat pada pondasi sendiri, dimasukkan ke dalam tanah, dipasang atau digambar pada struktur yang permanen. Kebanyakan jenis media reklame ini yang diizinkan untuk dipasang.
b. Media reklame temporer. Media reklame ini digunakan pada suatu waktu yang tertentu saja ketika ada suatu acara/pertunjukan dan sejenisnya, dan sesudahnya tidak digunakan lagi. Media reklame jenis ini mempunyai ciri mudah untuk dipindahkan atau dibongkar secara tidak terbuat dari bahan yang mahal.
3. Berdasarkan sifat penyampaian informasi, terdiri atas (Shirvani, 1982: 4):
a. Media reklame yang bersifat langsung. Media ini berkaitan dengan kegiatan pada suatu bangunan atau lingkungan tempat media reklame diletakkan, seperti media reklame yang menunjukkan identitas usaha atau bangunan.
b. Media reklame yang bersifat tidak langsung. Media reklame jenis ini berisi pesan–pesan yang tidak mempunyai keterkaitan langsung dengan kegiatan dalam bangunan atau lingkungan dimana media reklame tersebut berada.

4. Secara teknis pemasangannya, media reklame dibedakan atas (Kelly dan Raso,1989: 3):
a. Media reklame yang berdiri sendiri (free standing signs), memiliki dua bentuk yaitu:
·          Media reklame dengan tiang (pole signs). Media reklame ini didukung oleh tiang, kadang–kadang lebih dari satu, terpisah dari tanah oleh udara dan terpisah dari bangunan dan struktur yang lain.
·         Media reklame yang terletak di tanah (ground sign). Dasar dari media reklame ini terletak di tanah atau tertutup oleh tanah dan terpisah dari bangunan atau struktur sejenis yang lain.
A.       Media reklame pada atap bangunan (roof signs) yang terdiri atas :
·         Media reklame yang tidak menyatu dengan atap. Media reklame ini dibangun di atas atap bangunan, disangga oleh struktur atap dan berada tinggi di atas atap.
·         Media reklame yang menyatu dengan atap. Media reklame yang menyatu dengan atap ini dicirikan dengan tidak adanya bagian media reklame yang melebihi ketinggian atap dan terpasang pararel tidak lebih dari 21 cm.
c. Media reklame dari tenda maupun awning (canopy and awning sigs) yang meliputi:
·         Media reklame pada tenda maupun awning yang permanen.
·         Media reklame pada tenda maupunawning yang dapat dilihat.
d. Projected sign. Media reklame ini
diletakkan pada bangunan atau dinding bangunan dengan sedemikian rupa menghadapi arus kendaraan dan jarak tidak lebih dari 15 cm dari dinding bangunan dan dipasang tegak lurus dari bangunan.
e. Media reklame yang ditempatkan pada dinding (wall signs). Media reklame yang masuk dalam kategori ini adalah media reklame yang dipasang secara pararel dalam jarak maksimum 15 cm dari dinding bangunan, media reklame yang dicat pada permukaan dinding atau sruktur bangunan yang lain.
f. Me d i a r e k l ame y a n g d i g a n t u n g (suspended signs). Media reklame ini digantung pada bagian bawah bidang horisontal (langit–langit) pada serambi bangunan. Umumnya media reklame ini berukuran lebih kecil dari papan nama atau alamat untuk memberitahukan pada pejalan kaki yang tidak dapat melihat media reklame yang lebih besar yang diletakkan pada dinding di atas serambi di bagian depan bangunan.
g. Media reklame di atas pintu keluar masuk bangunan (marquee signs). Media reklame ini diletakkan pada struktur bangunan seperti atap di atas pintu keluar masuk bangunan.
h. Media reklame pada jendela atau pintu (window/ door signs). Media reklame jenis ini dapat berupa gambar, simbol atau kombinasi keduanya yang dirancang untuk memberikan informasi mengenai suatu aktivitas, bisnis, komoditi, peristiwa, perdagangan atau suatu perdagangan atau suhu pelayanan yang diletakkan pada jendela atau pintu dari kaca dan tampak dari sisi sebelah luar.

Konsep Perancangan
 Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan:
1) Visibilitas (keterlihatan) papan/tanda (terpengaruh oleh faktor lokasi, tiang penempatan, cat pantul dan sebagainya);
2) Legibilitas informasi (keterbacaan, kejelasan), yang berkaitan dengan macam dan ukuran huruf, jarak antar huruf, lokasi warna dasar,warna huruf dan sebagainya; juga tetap terbaca dari kenderaan yang bergerak;
3) Keseimbangan antara pengendalian kesemrawutan dan penciptaan perhatian serta sambil memancarkan pesan /informasi;
4) Keharmonisan papan nama/reklame dengan arsitektur bangunan di dekatnya;pe rlu juga pengendalian  ukuran tanda/papan yang mengganggu aktivitas kota;
5) Pengendalian pemakaian lampu kedip untuk reklame (kecuali untuk tanda keselamatan lalulintas/tanda “hati-hati', atau untuk bioskop dan sebagainya)
Analisis Tempat/Lokasi
 a. Pada Sarana dan Prasaran Kota Biasanya berupa reklame tiang, dipasang dengan cara menanam tiang dari pipa besi ke dalam trotoar yang digali dan dicor dengan semen. Penempatannya sendiri cukup mengganggu, baik sirkulasi maupun visual pejalan kaki. Jalur pedestrian yang memiliki lebar kurang lebih 150cm sudah cukup sempit, diambil lagi untuk lahan parkir, kunci dari perancangan pedestrian agar nyaman adalah adanya keseimbangan antara penggunaan pedestrian area dengan fasilitas bagi kendaraan bermotor, dalam hal ini tempat parkir, selain itu adanya penempatan tiang papan reklame dengan jarak antar tiang papan reklame yang terlalu dekat, banyaknya pohon yang ada juga memberikan kesan adanya pembatas jalur pedestrian yaitu antara kios-kios pedagang dengan t
Karakteristik Umum Penyelenggaraan Reklame.Berdasarkan berbagai jenis pemasangan,reklame, penyelenggaraannya juga harus,memperhatikan kriteria sebagai berikut:
a.       Media reklame yang ditempatkan padadinding (wall signs).
b.      Media reklame yang ditempatkan pada atas bangunan (roof signs).
c.       Media reklame yang berdiri sendiri (freestanding signs).
d.      Media reklame pada jembatan (bridge signs).
e.      Kawasan Tanpa PenyelenggaraanReklame (White Area).
f.        Kawasan Penyelenggaraan Reklame Kendali Ketat.
g.       Kawasan Penyelenggaraan Reklame Kendali Sedang.
h.      Penyelenggaraan Reklame Kawasan Khusus

Briquettes
A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust or other combustible biomass material such as charcoal, sawdust, wood chips,  peat, or paper used for fuel and kindling to start a fire. The term comes from the French language and is related to brick.
Constituents of charcoal briquettes
Charcoal briquettes sold for cooking food can include:[3][4]
·         Wood charcoal (fuel)
·         Lignite coal (fuel)
·         Anthracite coal (fuel)
·         Limestone (ash colourant)
·         Starch (binder)
·         Borax (release agent)
·         Sodium nitrate (accelerant)
·         Sawdust
·         Wax (some brands: binder, accelerant, ignition facilitator).
·         Chaff (rice chaff and peanut chaff)
Some briquettes are compressed and dried brown coal extruded into hard blocks. This is a common technique for low rank coals. They are typically dried to 12-18% moisture, and are primarily used in household and industry.
Peat briquettes
In Ireland, peat briquettes are a common type of solid fuel, largely replacing sods of raw peat as a domestic fuel. These briquettes consist of shredded peat, compressed to form a virtually smokeless, slow-burning, easily stored and transported fuel. Although often used as the sole fuel for a fire, they are also used to quickly and easily light a coal fire.
Biomass briquettes
Biomass briquettes are made from agricultural waste and are a replacement for fossil fuels such as oil or coal, and can be used to heat boilers in manufacturing plants, and also have applications in developing countries. Biomass briquettes are a renewable source of energy and avoid adding fossil carbon to the atmosphere.
A number of companies in India have switched from furnace oil to biomass briquettes to save costs on boiler fuels. The use of biomass briquettes is predominant in the southern parts of India, where coal and furnace oil are being replaced by biomass briquettes. A number of units in Maharashtra (India) are also using biomass briquettes as boiler fuel. Use of biomass briquettes can earn Carbon Credits for reducing emissions in the atmosphere. Lanxess India and a few other large companies are supposedly using biomass briquettes for earning Carbon Credits by switching their boiler fuel. Biomass briquettes also provide more calorific value/kg and save around 30-40 percent of boiler fuel costs.
A popular biomass briquette emerging in developed countries takes a waste produce such as sawdust, compresses it and then extrudes it to make a reconsistuted log that can replace firewood. It is a similar process to forming a wood pellet but on a larger scale. There are no binders involved in this process. The natural lignin in the wood binds the particles of wood together to form a solid. Burning a wood briquette is far more efficient than burning firewood. Moisture content of a briquette can be as low as 4%, whereas green firewood may be as high as 65%.
The extrusion production technology of briquettes is the process of extrusion screw wastes (straw, sunflower husks, buckwheat, etc.) or finely shredded wood waste (sawdust) under high pressure when heated from 160 to 350 C °. As shown in the table above the quality of such briquets, especially heat content, is much higher comparing with other methods like using piston presses.

Sawdust briquettes have developed over time with two distinct types: those with holes through the centre, and those that are solid. Both types are classified as briquettes but are formed using different techniques. A solid briquette is manufactured using a piston press that compresses sandwiched layers of sawdust together. Briquettes with a hole are produced with a screw press. The hole is from the screw thread passing through the centre, but it also increases the surface area of the log and aids efficient combustion.
Use in China
Throughout China, cylindrical briquettes, called "fēng wō méi" (beehive coal 蜂窩煤 / 窝煤) or "Mei" (coal ) or "liàn tàn" (kneaded coal 練炭 / 练炭), are used in purpose-built cookers. The origin of "Mei" is "Rentan" (kneaded coal 練炭) of Japan. Rentan was invented in Japan in the 19th century, and spread to Manchukuo, Korea and China in the first half of the 20th century. There were many Rentan factories in Manchukuo and Pyongyang. Although Rentan went out of use in Japan after the 1970s, it is still popular in China, Korea ("yeon tan" kneaded coal 연탄) and Vietnam ("than" coal).
The cookers are simple, ceramic vessels with metal exteriors. Two types are made: the single, or triple briquette type, the latter holding the briquettes together side by side. These cookers can accommodate a double stack of cylinders. A small fire of tinder is started, upon which the cylinder(s) is placed. When a cylinder is spent, another cylinder is placed on top using special tongs, with the one below igniting it. The fire can be maintained by swapping spent cylinders for fresh ones, and retaining a still-glowing spent cylinder.
Each cylinder lasts for over an hour. These cookers are used to cook, or simmer, pots of tea, eggs, soups, stews, etc. The cylinders are delivered, usually by cart, to businesses, and are very inexpensive.
Paper briquettes
Paper briquettes are the byproduct of a briquettor, which compresses shredded paper material into a small cylindrical form. Briquettors are often sold as add-on systems to existing disintegrator or rotary knife mill shredding systems. The NSA has a maximum particle size regulation for shredded paper material that is passed through a disintegrator or rotary knife mill, which typically does not exceed 1/8” square.[5] This means that material exiting a disintegrator is the appropriate size for compression into paper briquettes, as opposed to strip-cut shredders which produce long sheets of paper.
After being processed through the disintegrator, paper particles are typically passed through an air system to remove dust and unwanted magnetic materials before being sent into the briquettor. The air system may also be responsible for regulating moisture content in the waste particles, as briquetting works optimally within a certain range of moisture. Studies have shown that the optimal moisture percentage for shredded particles is 18% for paper and 22% for wheat straw.[6]
Environmental Impact
Briquetted paper has many notable benefits, many of which minimize the impact of the paper waste generated by a shredding system. Several manufactures claim up to 90% volume reduction of briquetted paper waste versus traditional shredding. Decreasing the volume of shredded waste allows it to be transported and stored more efficiently, reducing the cost and fuel required in the disposal process.
In addition to the cost savings associated with reducing the volume of waste, paper briquettes are more useful in paper mills to create recycled paper than uncompressed shredded material. Compressed briquettes can also be used as a fuel for starting fires or as an insulating material.
Charcoal
Charcoal is a light, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis, the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen (see char and biochar). It is usually an impure form of carbon as it contains ash; however, sugar charcoal is among the purest forms of carbon readily available, particularly if it is not made by heating but by a dehydration reaction with sulfuric acid to minimise the introduction of new impurities, as impurities can be removed from the sugar in advance. The resulting soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resembles coal
History
Historically, production of wood charcoal in locations where there is an abundance of wood dates back to a very ancient period, and generally consists of piling billets of wood on their ends so as to form a conical pile, openings being left at the bottom to admit air, with a central shaft to serve as a flue. The whole pile is covered with turf or moistened clay. The firing is begun at the bottom of the flue, and gradually spreads outwards and upwards. The success of the operation depends upon the rate of the combustion. Under average conditions, 100 parts of wood yield about 60 parts by volume, or 25 parts by weight, of charcoal; small-scale production on the spot often yields only about 50%, large-scale was efficient to about 90% even by the seventeenth century. The operation is so delicate that it was generally left to colliers (professional charcoal burners). They often lived alone in small huts in order to tend their wood piles. For example, in the Harz Mountains of Germany, charcoal burners lived in conical huts called Köten which are still much in evidence today[when?].
The massive production of charcoal (at its height employing hundreds of thousands, mainly in Alpine and neighbouring forests) was a major cause of deforestation, especially in Central Europe. In England, many woods were managed as coppices, which were cut and regrew cyclically, so that a steady supply of charcoal would be available (in principle) forever; complaints (as early as the Stuart period) about shortages may relate to the results of temporary over-exploitation or the impossibility of increasing production to match growing demand. The increasing scarcity of easily harvested wood was a major factor behind the switch to fossil fuel equivalents, mainly coal and brown coal for industrial use.
The use of charcoal as a smelting fuel has been experiencing a resurgence in South America following Brazilian law changes in 2010 to reduce carbon emissions as part of President Lula da Silva's commitment to make a "green steel".[2][3]
The modern process of carbonizing wood, either in small pieces or as sawdust in cast iron retorts, is extensively practiced where wood is scarce, and also for the recovery of valuable byproducts (wood spirit, pyroligneous acid, wood tar), which the process permits. The question of the temperature of the carbonization is important; according to J. Percy, wood becomes brown at 220 °C (428 °F), a deep brown-black after some time at 280 °C (536 °F), and an easily powdered mass at 310 °C (590 °F).[4] Charcoal made at 300 °C (572 °F) is brown, soft and friable, and readily inflames at 380 °C (716 °F); made at higher temperatures it is hard and brittle, and does not fire until heated to about 700 °C (1,292 °F).
In Finland and Scandinavia, the charcoal was considered the by-product of wood tar production. The best tar came from pine, thus pinewoods were cut down for tar pyrolysis. The residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting. Tar production led to rapid deforestation: it has been estimated all Finnish forests are younger than 300 years. The end of tar production at the end of the 19th century resulted in rapid re-forestation.
The charcoal briquette, made commercially using mostly compressed coal dust, was first invented and patented by Ellsworth B. A. Zwoyer of Pennsylvania in 1897[5] and was produced by the Zwoyer Fuel Company. The process was further popularized by Henry Ford, who used wood and sawdust byproducts from automobile fabrication as a feedstock. Ford Charcoal went on to become the Kingsford Company.
Production methods
Charcoal has been made by various methods. The traditional method in Britain used a clamp. This is essentially a pile of wooden logs (e.g. seasoned oak) leaning against a chimney (logs are placed in a circle). The chimney consists of 4 wooden stakes held up by some rope. The logs are completely covered with soil and straw allowing no air to enter. It must be lit by introducing some burning fuel into the chimney; the logs burn very slowly and transform into charcoal in a period of 5 days' burning. If the soil covering gets torn (cracked) by the fire, additional soil is placed on the cracks. Once the burn is complete, the chimney is plugged to prevent air from entering.[6] The true art of this production method is in managing the sufficient generation of heat (by combusting part of the wood material), and its transfer to wood parts in the process of being carbonised. A strong disadvantage of this production method is the huge amount of emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment (emissions of unburnt methane).[7] As a result of the partial combustion of wood material, the efficiency of the traditional method is low.
Improved methods use a sealed metal container, as this does not require watching lest fire break through the covering.[8] However, on-site attendance is required, and also this method sacrifices part of the material for generating process heat - with the associated low yield. At Bulworthy Project in the UK, charcoal production supports an experiment in low-impact living and nature conservation.[9] Modern methods employ retorting technology, in which process heat is recovered from, and solely provided by, the combustion of gas released during carbonisation. (Illustration:[10]). Yields of retorting are considerably higher than those of kilning, and may reach 35%-40%.
Examples of large industrial, but clean, industrial technologies are the Lambiotte shaft furnace, and the Reichert retort.[11] A recently developed technology is the Condensing Retort developed by Clean Fuels.[12] This latter technology is suitable for medium to large industries.
The last section of the film Le Quattro Volte (2010) gives a good and long, if poetic, documentation of the traditional method of making charcoal.[13] The Arthur Ransome children's series Swallows and Amazons (particularly the second book Swallowdale) features carefully drawn vignettes of the lives and the techniques of charcoal burners at the start of the 20th century, in the Lake District of the UK.
The properties of the charcoal produced depend on the material charred. The charring temperature is also important. Charcoal contains varying amounts of hydrogen and oxygen as well as ash and other impurities that, together with the structure, determine the properties. The approximate composition of charcoal for gunpowders is sometimes empirically described as C7H4O. To obtain a coal with high purity, source material should be free of non-volatile compounds (sugar and a high charring temperature can be used). After charring, partial oxidation with oxygen or chlorine can reduce hydrogen levels. For activation of charcoal see activated carbon.
Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common charcoal in the presence of a gas that causes the charcoal to develop lots of internal spaces or “pores.” These pores help activated charcoal “trap” chemicals.
Types
Commercial charcoal is found in either lump, briquette, or extruded forms:
·         Lump charcoal is made directly from hardwood material and usually produces far less ash than briquettes.
·         Pillow shaped briquettes are made by compressing charcoal, typically made from sawdust and other wood by-products, with a binder and other additives. The binder is usually starch. Some briquettes may also include brown coal (heat source), mineral carbon (heat source), borax, sodium nitrate (ignition aid), limestone (ash-whitening agent), raw sawdust (ignition aid), and other additives.
·         Hexagonal sawdust briquette charcoal are made by compressing sawdust without binders or additives. Hexagonal Sawdust Briquette Charcoal is the preferred charcoal in countries like Taiwan, Korea, Middle East, Greece. It has a round hole through the center, with a hexagonal intersection. Mainly for barbeque uses as it does not emit odor, no smoke, little ash, high heat, and long burning hours (exceeding 4 hours).
·         Extruded charcoal is made by extruding either raw ground wood or carbonized wood into logs without the use of a binder. The heat and pressure of the extruding process hold the charcoal together. If the extrusion is made from raw wood material, the extruded logs are then subsequently carbonized.[14]
·         Japanese charcoal removes pyroligneous acid during the charcoal making. Therefore, when burning, there are almost no stimulating smells or smoke. The charcoal of Japan is classified into three kinds.
1.       White charcoal (Binchōtan) is very hard and has a metallic sound.
2.       Black charcoal
3.       Ogatan is made from hardened sawdust. It is most often used in Izakaya or Yakiniku restaurants.
The characteristics of charcoal products (lump, briquette, or extruded forms) vary widely from product to product. Thus it is a common misconception to stereotype any kind of charcoal, saying which burns hotter or longer etc
Uses
Charcoal has been used since earliest times for a large range of purposes including art and medicine, but by far its most important use has been as a metallurgical fuel. Charcoal is the traditional fuel of a blacksmith's forge and other applications where an intense heat is required. Charcoal was also used historically as a source of carbon black by grinding it up. In this form charcoal was important to early chemists and was a constituent of formulas for mixtures such as black powder. Due to its high surface area charcoal can be used as a filter, and as a catalyst or as an adsorbent
Metallurgical fuel
Charcoal burns at intense temperatures, up to 2,700 °C (4,890 °F).[verification needed] By comparison the melting point of iron is approximately 1,200 to 1,550 °C (2,190 to 2,820 °F). Due to its porosity it is sensitive to the flow of air and the heat generated can be moderated by controlling the air flow to the fire. For this reason charcoal is an ideal fuel for a forge and is still widely used by blacksmiths. Charcoal is also an excellent reducing fuel for the production of iron and has been used that way since Roman times. In the 16th century England had to pass laws to prevent the country from becoming completely denuded of trees due to production of iron. In the 19th century charcoal was largely replaced by coke, baked coal, in steel making due to cost. Charcoal is a far superior fuel to coke,[verification needed] however, because it burns hotter and has no sulfur. Until World War II charcoal was still being used in Sweden to make ultra high-quality steel. In steel-making, charcoal is not only a fuel, but a source for the carbon in the steel according to some scholars such as Moronda, 2011.
After the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen, Denmark, the steel industry in Brazil proposed to replace coal and coke with charcoal in their high temperature furnaces. The program "Green Steel for the Brazilian Steel Industry" converted wood from Eucalyptus plantations into charcoal that will be used in steel making.[16]
Industrial fuel
Historically, charcoal was used in great quantities for smelting iron in bloomeries and later blast furnaces and finery forges. This use was replaced by coke in the 19th Century as part of the Industrial Revolution. For this purpose, charcoal in England was measured in dozens (or loads) consisting of 12 sacks or shems or seams, each of 8 bushels.[citation needed] In 2010, Japan Consulting Institute took an action in search of a better, 'greener', and even cheaper alternative to replace fossil fuels like coke in steelmaking. The research revealed that Palm Kernel Shell charcoal (PKS charcoal) is proven to be a better fuel in Electric arc furnace (EAF) as coke replacement.[17] As auxiliary energy in EAF, in many aspects, PKS charcoal outperforms coke
Cooking fuel
Prior to the industrial revolution charcoal was occasionally used as a cooking fuel. Modern "charcoal briquettes" are widely used for outdoor dutch ovens, grilling, and barbecues in backyards and on camping trips, but the briquettes are not pure charcoal.[19] They are usually a compacted mixture of sawdust with additives like coal or coke and various binders.
Syngas production, automotive fuel
Like many other sources of carbon, charcoal can be used for the production of various syngas compositions; i.e., various CO + H2 + CO2 + N2 mixtures. The syngas is typically used as fuel, including automotive propulsion, or as a chemical feedstock.
In times of scarce petroleum, automobiles and even buses have been converted to burn wood gas (a gas mixture consisting primarily of diluting atmospheric nitrogen, but also containing combustible gasses, mostly carbon monoxide) released by burning charcoal or wood in a wood gas generator. In 1931 Tang Zhongming developed an automobile powered by charcoal, and these cars were popular in China until the 1950s. In occupied France during World War II, wood and wood charcoal production for such vehicles (called gazogènes) increased from pre-war figures of approximately fifty thousand tons a year to almost half a million tons in 1943.[20]
Black powder
Charcoal (in the majority of black powder mixtures, together with sulphur) is the fuel component of black powder and blasting powders and is also used in other pyrotechnic mixtures.[21] This charcoal is usually made from specific softwoods (i.e. willow and grapevine) charred at low temperature.[citation needed]
Carbon source
Charcoal may be used as a source of carbon in chemical reactions. One example of this is the production of carbon disulphide through the reaction of sulfur vapors with hot charcoal. In that case the wood should be charred at high temperature to reduce the residual amounts of hydrogen and oxygen that lead to side reactions.
Purification and filtration
Charcoal may be activated to increase its effectiveness as a filter. Activated charcoal readily adsorbs a wide range of organic compounds dissolved or suspended in gases and liquids. In certain industrial processes, such as the purification of sucrose from cane sugar, impurities cause an undesirable color, which can be removed with activated charcoal. It is also used to absorb odors and toxins in gases, such as air. Charcoal filters are also used in some types of gas masks. The medical use of activated charcoal is mainly the absorption of poisons, especially in the case of suicide attempts in which the patient has ingested a large amount of a drug.[22] Activated charcoal is available without a prescription, so it is used for a variety of health-related applications. For example, it is often used to reduce discomfort (and embarrassment) due to excessive gas (commonly known as a fart or flatulence) in the digestive tract.
Animal charcoal or bone black is the carbonaceous residue obtained by the dry distillation of bones. It contains only about 10% carbon, the remainder being calcium and magnesium phosphates (80%) and other inorganic material originally present in the bones. It is generally manufactured from the residues obtained in the glue and gelatin industries. Its decolorizing power was applied in 1812 by Derosne to the clarification of the syrups obtained in sugar refining; but its use in this direction has now greatly diminished, owing to the introduction of more active and easily managed reagents. It is still used to some extent in laboratory practice. The decolorizing power is not permanent, becoming lost after using for some time; it may be revived, however, by washing and reheating. Wood charcoal also to some extent removes coloring material from solutions, but animal charcoal is generally more effective.[citation needed]
Art
Four sticks of vine charcoal and four sticks of compressed charcoal
Two charcoal pencils in paper sheaths that are unwrapped as the pencil is used, and two charcoal pencils in wooden sheaths
·         Main article: Charcoal
·         Charcoal is used in art for drawing, making rough sketches in painting and is one of the possible media for making a parsemage. It must usually be preserved by the application of a fixative. Artists generally utilize charcoal in three forms:
·         Vine charcoal is created by burning sticks of wood (usually willow or linden/Tilia) into soft, medium, and hard consistencies.
Powdered charcoal is often used to "tone" or cover large sections of a drawing surface. Drawing over the toned areas darkens it further, but the artist can also lighten (or completely erase) within the toned area to create lighter tones.
Compressed charcoal charcoal powder mixed with gum binder compressed into round or square sticks. The amount of binder determines the hardness of the stick.[25] Compressed charcoal is used in charcoal pencils.
Horticulture
One additional use of charcoal was rediscovered recently in horticulture. Although American gardeners have been using charcoal for a short while, research on Terra preta soils in the Amazon has found the widespread use of biochar by pre-Columbian natives to turn unproductive soil into carbon rich soil. The technique may find modern application, both to improve soils and as a means of carbon sequestration.
Medicine
Charcoal was consumed in the past as dietary supplement for gastric problems in the form of charcoal biscuits. Now it can be consumed in tablet, capsule or powder form, for digestive effects.[citation needed] Research regarding its effectiveness is controversial.[27] To measure the mucociliary transport time the use was introduced by Passali in combination with saccharin
Red colobus monkeys in Africa have been observed eating charcoal for the purposes of self-medication. Their leafy diets contain high levels of cyanide, which may lead to indigestion. So they learned to consume charcoal, which absorbs the cyanide and relieves indigestion. This knowledge about supplementing their diet is transmitted from mother to infant.[29]
Also, see Activated charcoal, medicinal applications.
Smoking
Special charcoals are used in smoking the hookah. Lit charcoals are placed on top of foil that is placed over the tobacco bowl. The charcoals "cook" the tobacco to a temperature that does not burn it but produces smoke. Normally, charcoal for hookah or shisha smoking must be hard, high density, easy to ignite, and burn longer with persistent heat.[30]
Charcoals used for smoking hookah are manufactured using multiple materials from natural charcoal, coconut coals, and less exotic woods such as oak.[31]
Environmental implications

Charcoal production at a sub-industrial level is one of the causes of deforestation. Charcoal production is now usually illegal and nearly always unregulated as in Brazil where charcoal production is actually a huge illegal industry for making pig iron.[32][33][34] Massive forest destruction has been documented in areas such as Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where it is considered a primary threat to the survival of the mountain gorillas.[35] Similar threats are found in Zambia.[36] In Malawi, illegal charcoal trade employs 92,800 workers and is the main source of heat and cooking fuel for 90 percent of the nation’s population.[37] Some experts, such as Duncan MacQueen, Principal Researcher–Forest Team, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), argue that while illegal charcoal production causes deforestation, a regulated charcoal industry that required replanting and sustainable use of the forests "would give their people clean efficient energy – and their energy industries a strong competitive advantage."
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